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The Mummy and Miss Nitocris: A Phantasy of the Fourth Dimension (1906)
George Griffith

In his presentation entitled "An Examination of Some Supposed Mathematical Impossibilities" before the Royal Society, Professor Marmion demonstrates that he can do three geometric constructions that mathematicians have proved are impossible:

(quoted from The Mummy and Miss Nitocris: A Phantasy of the Fourth Dimension)

"Now," he continued, "it is generally conceded that an ounce of practice is worth a good many pounds of precept, so I will get to the practice. I need hardly remind you that ever since mathematics became an exact science, three problems have been recognised as impossible of solution—trisecting the triangle, squaring the circle, and doubling the cube. I have now the pleasure of announcing that I have had the great good fortune to discover certain formulæ which, so far, at least, as I can see, make the solution of those problems not only possible, but comparatively easy—to those who know how to use them."

Of course, many of the famous mathematicians and scientists in the audience are skeptical, but they do not know that Marmion's miraculous abilities stem from his discoveries regarding the fourth dimension and the ancient Egyptian princess who has been reincarnated as his own daughter.

The threat of ancient Egyptian horrors in Victorian England is the main concern of this thriller, but I will focus in this review on the mathematical aspects.

Both in fiction and in reality, there are "crackpots" who aim to show that mathematicians are wrong to claim that squaring the circle, doubling the cube and angle trisection are impossible. What they often miss is that they are impossible given a rather specific set of rules. In the sense that mathematics is axiomatic, all of math follows certain rules. But, the claim that trisecting an angle is impossible refers specifically to Compass and Straightedge Construction. Under these rules, one has only these two tools with which to work, and it really has been proved mathematically that certain tasks like trisecting a given angle cannot be achieved under those rules. Of course, if one changes the "rules of the game", then these things are no longer impossible tasks. (Given an angle of size θ, we can simply declare it to be decomposed into three angles of size θ/3, for instance. But, that is not a compass and straight edge construction!)

One might think, therefore, that what Griffith is describing is merely that Marmion has changed the underlying axioms when he moved to working in "N^4" (his notation for 4-dimensional space.) But, I do not believe this is the intent. Towards the beginning of the book, his daughter suggests that four-dimensional geometry renders everything possible:

(quoted from The Mummy and Miss Nitocris: A Phantasy of the Fourth Dimension)

"He doesn't quite mean that, dear," replied the Professor, still staring straight at the motionless Mummy as though he half expected the lips which had not spoken for fifty centuries to answer the question that was shaping itself in his mind. "What Hartley means, dear, is this—that when Pythagoras thought out that proposition he had almost reached the border which divides the world of three dimensions from the world of four."

"Which, as our dear old friend Euclid would say, is impossible; because you know, Dad, if that were possible, everything else would be."

Furthermore, one of the audience members at his presentation objects that Marmion has found contradictions in mathematics itself, in that these things can be proved to be impossible and yet are also demonstrated to be possible. So, it seems to me that Griffith expects us to believe that having made discoveries about the fourth dimension, Marmion has not simply changed the rules but is no longer constrained by the concepts of "possible" and "impossible" in any way.

Clearly, this science fiction story is a bit "over the top" and difficult to believe. However, it is rather well written as compared with other "pulp" science fiction. Moreover, considering its early publication date, it is quite prescient, containing passages which bring to mind World War I, Kurt Gödel's work on consistency of mathematics, and Minkowski space. I am very grateful to Elaine Freedman for bringing it to my attention.

As a side note, it may be interesting to keep in mind that George Chetwyn Griffith-Jones (1857-1906) was known as an explorer as well as being famous in Britain for his science fiction.

The entire novel can be read for free in various locations on the Internet, including

More information about this work can be found at
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Works Similar to The Mummy and Miss Nitocris: A Phantasy of the Fourth Dimension
According to my `secret formula', the following works of mathematical fiction are similar to this one:
  1. A non-Euclidean story or: how to persist when your geometry doesn’t by Rami Luisto
  2. The Gate of the Flying Knives by Poul Anderson
  3. The Mathematics of Magic by L. Sprague de Camp / Fletcher Pratt
  4. Saint Joan of New York: A Novel About God and String Theory by Mark Alpert
  5. Plane and Fancy by P. Schuyler Miller
  6. El Troiacord by Miquel de Palol
  7. Dante Dreams by Stephen Baxter
  8. Journey to the Center of Mathematics by Colin Adams
  9. Through the Gates of the Silver Key by H.P. Lovecraft / E. Hoffmann Price
  10. The Dreams in the Witch-House by H.P. Lovecraft
Ratings for The Mummy and Miss Nitocris: A Phantasy of the Fourth Dimension:
RatingsHave you seen/read this work of mathematical fiction? Then click here to enter your own votes on its mathematical content and literary quality or send me comments to post on this Webpage.
Mathematical Content:
2/5 (1 votes)
Literary Quality:
3/5 (1 votes)

MotifHigher/Lower Dimensions, Proving Theorems,
TopicGeometry/Topology/Trigonometry, Logic/Set Theory,
MediumNovels, Available Free Online,

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Exciting News: The 1,600th entry was recently added to this database of mathematical fiction! Also, for those of you interested in non-fictional math books let me (shamelessly) plug the recent release of the second edition of my soliton theory textbook.

(Maintained by Alex Kasman, College of Charleston)